Physical vapor deposition (PVD) is the process where high amounts of energy are used to vaporize solids, which subsequently condense on research materials. Many methods of PVD exist, but the two most common are electron-beam evaporation and plasma sputtering. The cleanroom has several deposition tools utilizing these methods. Acceptable materials vary from system to system so be sure to confirm with a staff member before introducing new substrates to a system. Additionally, be sure you understand the thermal limitations of your substrate.